Damai is a shy and sweet little girl of 2 years old who loves splashing herself with water. Besides the two sun bear cubs Loki and Sunbearo, she is the youngest sun bear in the Bornean Sun Bear Conservation Centre (BSBCC).
When Damai was only 5 months old, she was found wandering at a car park before she was brought to the BSBCC.
Young Damai climbing around a big wooden log.
In the first seven months or so, one of the bear care staffs showed her the jungle around the Sepilok Jungle, to get her familiar with the surroundings. To surprise of everybody, she started making a nest in a tree without a mother to show her how!
Damai gets to see her new home at 5 months old.
Looking for tasty termites.
Termite nests is greedily explored.
As if she has always lived in the jungle.
Damai is very proud of her first build nest!
When she was about 1 year old, it became too dangerous for a human to walk with her in the jungle, so she moved to the indoor bear house. Usually this is also the age that people, who keep sun bear as a pet, start to realize that sun bears are wild animals and their huge canines and claws can and will be very dangerous. Next stop for a captured sun bear is often a tragic one: the cooking pot, the traditional medicine store or the black market. In the wild, baby sun bears will stay with their mother until they are 2 to 4 years old, before they take off to live a solitary life. They learn all kinds of practical things to survive. Damai lost her mother too young, so she needs to learn these things from other sun bears, although she already proved that some skills depend on nature rather than nurture! TIME TO MEET SOME OTHER BEARS
Now she reached the age that she is not so vulnerable anymore, so it was time to start an integration process with six other bears of her age: the females Mary, Debbie, Koko, Ah Bui and Bongkud, and the male Fulung. They all share four adjacent indoor cages, connected by sliding doors, but until two weeks ago the sliding door of Damai's cage was kept closed until the six others went to the outdoor enclosure at day time.
Damai is about to meet Mary for the first time.
Damai gets chased away from the basket.
Because it would be too overwhelming for Damai to meet all six sun bears at the same time, one by one introduction was started for the first five days. Except Mary and Ah Bui, all of them where curious, started sniffing at her and wanted to play with Damai, but only Fulung succeeded. Not because Damai wanted to play with Fulung, but simply because it was not possible to escape strong and playful Fulung!
The playing of sun bears looks a lot like a wrestling match, with a lot of neck biting and clawing, but as long as there is no growling, you know it's just playing. Later, in the wild, the fighting skills they learn while playing are very useful when they get attacked by, for instance, a python or clouded leopard or other competitive sun bears.
No.This is not a dancing bear! Damai does not want to play with Fulung.
Fulung loves to play with Damai!
Little Mary wants to sleep and do not bother Damai.
Playful Fulung keeps on rolling and grabbing Damai, she cannot escape from him!
Play fight looks like a wrestling match.
Sometimes Damai can take control, here she is back away Bongkud.
This is still playing!
The group is getting more comfortable around Damai, Koko rolling backwards over Damai.
Time for a nap in the basket after play.
Best friends Mary (Left) and Debbie (Right) watching Damai play with Fulung.
In the following days, the number of bears integrating with Damai slowly increased, until after about 8 days the complete group could be with Damai at the same time. In the days that passed, it became clear that Damai is a girl that likes to be alone. Bongkud and Debbie manage to play fight with her for a few minutes, and Fulung still is record holder playing with Damai. The rest of the group is simply ignored or ignores Damai. But there is no aggression either, so the integration sessions can be called successful. After all, being alone is their nature.
NEXT STEP: GET READY TO LEAVE THE BEAR HOUSE
Before any sun bear can leave the indoor bear house to the outside forest enclosure, there is training required: fence training. Each forest enclosure has a fence with electrical wire (hot wire). This is necessary to make sure that non-integrated groups won't climb to each other's enclosure, or that any of the sun bears won't climb outside the enclosure where humans walk and dangers for the sun bear lure.
Honey, porridge and fruits near the hot wire.
In the indoor bear house, next to the cages where Damai had her integration sessions, is a large training pen. With honey, porridge and fruit Damai was encouraged to come near the hot wire, with a very low voltage in the beginning. The first day, the same day of her first integration session, Damai touched the hot wire while licking the honey. It scared her so much that she immediately ran back to her own cage! The next day the same thing happened, and the three following days she had just enough courage to walk into the training pen before hurrying back to her own safe cage. It took a whole week and four more 'zappings' before Damai understood how to get the food without touching the hot wire and walk confident around in the training pen. At that point the integration area could be extended to the training pen.
Damai learn the fence training. She loves honey!
Very careful trying to get a piece of banana without getting zapped.
This week she will be allowed to go to the outside enclosure together with the rest of her group to reach the final stage of her training: get her ready to release her back in the wild!
Last step for Damai waiting her out to the forest enclosure BSBCC.
First few moments of freedom for 10 sun bears just climbing and playing around the forest enclosure.
They are interact with the natural environment experiencing with different smells and sounds.
Following up on the indoor integration of the Mary and Natalie groups, today we saw the culmination of the exercise – the whole group outside sharing one forest enclosure! By regularly allowing the indoor socializing and ‘wrestling parties’ these bears so love, the bear house team ensured the two groups remained on friendly terms. Finally the time had come to test their ‘friendliness’ outdoors, where controlling a tense situation or fight would be impossible. A few of us entered the forest enclosure to scatter loads of fruit which would serve to distract from conflict, and fill tummies, hopefully creating a contented environment. Having only fed and observed from the feeding platform into this forest enclosure, I felt a little like being in someone’s home without their permission!
The forest enclosure looked so charming for the sun bears to roaming around.
Then the bear keepers opened the bear house doors while we waited expectantly at the feeding platform, anxious to see who would be the first to arrive in the pen. It took a good 5 minutes before we finally saw Fulung and another of the Mary group trundling along, calmly foraging on the scattered fruit. We had another wait until we saw any of Natalie’s cronies come to investigate the main area of the forest enclosure. Slowly Rungus, Natalie and Julaini began to familiarise themselves with the change of environment. Fresh alliances were forged and tree trunks were explored. Curiosity ruled the day.
They immediately look for insects in trees, climb trees and sleep high up in the canopy.
Sometimes they will just rest at forest floor.
Late afternoon found Natalie relaxing under her new favourite tree with a new found favourite friend – Bongkud, while Ah Bui sunned her tummy as her latest cohort Rungus dug for termites. Debbie showed off her climbing skills and Fulung continued his endless search for tasty snacks.Fortunately the day passed wonderfully uneventfully.
Introduce the ten sun bears that share in one forest enclosure:
-Natalie, 3 years old sub adult female
- Rungus, 5 years old adult female
- Julaini, 5 years old adult male
- Ah Lun, 5 years old adult female
- Ah Bui, 3 years old sub-adult female
- Debbie, 2 years old sub-adult female
-Mary, 2 years old sub-adult female
-Koko, 2 years old sub-adult female
-Fulung, 2 years old sub-adult male
-Bongkud, 2 years old sub-adult female
The bears all headed indoors for their much-loved evening meal; Julaini had chosen to stay indoors during this change of routine, which was probably fortunate as this young male could be a rough playmate with Fulung at times. While Natalie and Bongkud like to stay outside forest enclosure. The next day proceeded to be just as peaceful and without any incidents. This must be a world first - successfully integrating ten bears into a single forest enclosure.
They walked and looked around, choosing a tree. But when they did, they too quickly climbed to the top and rested in the height of the canopy.
Natalie was playing with enrichment made by the students of South Island School, Hong Kong.
Together have a nap in the forest.
Play fight in the forest.
Koko get a nice posture of sleeping.
Climbing tree and grooming together.
Compete in climbing tree together.
Debbie is alert and ready to forage for her food.
Natalie is enjoy roaming and climbing trees.
It was a best place that a bear would lay down and take a midday nap.
Koko is too tired after explore the forest, take a rest first!
Ah Bui climbs a tree for a better look.
Enjoying a wrestling match!!
Debbie is very active , independent and playful sun bear.
Debbie is the only bear at the Centre with a "Y" shaped chest mark and look like a wine.
Koko is using the dead log to scratch her body.
It seem like Julaini was enjoyed in the forest.
Rungus was playing with enrichment made by the students of Ape Malaysia.
Fulung is very careful and keeps its distance.
Ah Bui is explore and very curious of the various things that surround them her - from leaves to leeches.
"Let me have a rest first! "
Wonder what is Mary thinking about?
Obviously this is not ideal, much more space is required. But it shows how well the competent bear staff know their bears - to manage factors like age, sex, character traits, and hierarchies within established groups - to pull this off so smoothly in the limited space available. Congrats, guys, it was a great privilege to be involved in this venture! Now Bermuda can have his turn out in the forest:-)
As the BSBCC presently only has 3 outdoor pens large enough to accommodate several bears at the same time, some seriously strategic ‘bear shuffling’ has to occur in the bearhouse in order to get the right bears into the right cages for the outdoor exit ramps.
There are 2 existing groups that need to be integrated so they can occupy one outdoor pen instead of two, freeing up the second outdoor pen for Bermuda, a large mature male who is eagerly awaiting his outdoor sessions.
The two groups are ‘matriarchal’. The’’ Mary’’ group consists of 6 sub adult bears – little Mary, Ah Bui, Debbie, Koko, Bongkud and young male Fulung. 2nd group is Natalie’s group of four, with Natalie, Ah Lun, Runggus and young male Julaini.
Bear etiquette dictates that a polite introduction is by way of curiously sniffing through an interconnecting gateway - if no sign of aggression is seen, then the gateway is opened cautiously by the bear keeper, and one bear may proceed into the adjoining cage where the sniffing procedure progresses to a stage of playful paw inductions. Hereafter it is quite permissible to raucously cavort around the cage and wrestle in the hammock (or other enrichment provided) until one or both bears are completely exhausted. Suckling on a bear’s ears is a privilege for best friends only.
Integration started on the 9th September by daily introducing one bear from Mary’s group to the Natalie group bears, one bear at a time over an hour or so. These introductions over the week went amazingly well with no hint of aggression as each bear learnt the smells, stature and behaviour of the others, in spite of two females being on heat during the process.
Come get me!
OK, I give up!
However, there came a turning point when the two young males were introduced. All went smoothly at the beginning of the session with 7 of the bears occupying 3 interlinking cages, playing and rough-housing with great abandon. Fulung, the young male from Mary’s group, has a wound that he continuously scratches at and thus it cannot heal. Julaini, the young male from Natalie’s group, curious to see if this could be meat, took a bite, with the ensuing fracas becoming quite violent, and intervention needed.
Lesson learnt! - since then Fulung’s would is treated with medication so he no longer smells like a meal, and all bears taking part in integration sessions are fed copious amounts of fruity treats, so tummies are full and everyone’s content beforehand.
Boys can get quite rough.
Come play in this cage.
Sizing each other up!
After tired of play, taking a break in the basket.
Checking out the new scenery.
Hammocks are also made for wrestling.
I got you!
End result of any good bear wrestling.
Girls just chill and chat.
All 10 bears will continue to mingle for a period every day under the watchful eyes of the bear team until they are deemed ‘’suitably merged’’ to enter the outdoor pen together. Bermuda can then finally be moved up the chain of linked cages to the outdoor exit of forest enclosure, and experience the freedom of the natural forest again!
We were lucky enough to have 120 members of the Soka Gakai Malaysia group visit us this weekend. Members of the group were of all ages, from tiny youngsters to seniors, yet they all shared the same enthusiasm for learning about sun bears!
In three different groups of about 40 people, the SGM folks were guided along the forest path and out to the observation deck. Wong, Siew Te lead the happy pack and shared an informational sun bear talk with each group. There was plenty of action in the bear enclosures, as Fulung, Mary and Bongkud explored the treetops and displayed their fabulous climbing skills! Later, a curious orangutan came over to the observation deck to ‘sneak-a-peak’ at the second group, which led to a quick evacuation and an even more action-packed afternoon.
Members of the SGM were also able to share some time with our knowledgeable bear staff and learn all about our bears, the BSBCC and our future plans for development.
SGM was quite a generous and enthusiastic group for their entire visit by starting the morning with a festively adorned ‘Sun Bear Donations’ box and ending their visit with moon pies and homemade sandwiches for the whole BSBCC team.
Their spirited energy was a refreshing delight for the bear crew, and we hope their visit to the centre was a fruitful experience, full of great sun bear memories for them to share. Thank you for your support SGM!
Text by Chiew Lin May Photos by Chiew Lin May and Tee Thye Lim
Here are some photos of our sub – adult sun bears, out in the forest enclosure. They love to be by trees and will find activities to occupy their time that will keep them close to the canopy. These include looking for termites, other forest invertebrates, climbing trees, playing together and taking naps. They get on really well, and enjoy playing together. These six sun bears at the forest enclosure is buzzing with cheer and joy. Look what they are doing in the forest enclosure!!
It is happy sight to see Mary, Debbie, Ah Bui, Koko, Fulung and Bongkud knew what to do when they went out into the enclosure with all of the trees. Here are some photos of our sub-adult sun bears, out in their forest enclosure. They are very awesome!!
Look what Debbie doing in the forest enclosure!!
Debbie is enjoy eating the Durian (King of Fruits).
Look what Koko doing in the forest enclosure!!
Koko was tried to break the coconut.
Look what Ah Bui doing in the forest enclosure!!
Look what Mary doing in the forest enclosure!!
Look what Fulung doing in the forest enclosure!!
Look what Bongkud doing in the forest enclosure!!
Bongkud climb high up the liana.
For more information about BSBCC and the sun bears, have a look at website (http://www.bsbcc.org.my/) and facebook (https://www.facebook.com/sunbear.bsbcc)
Text by Chiew Lin May Photos by Gloria Ganang & Chiew Lin May On June 11th, 2013 Ah Bui and Mary spent their first few moments of freedom roaming, exploring, and playing around the forest enclosure. The next day, they were joined by Debbie and Koko. Soon after, the four sun bears were united with Fulung and Bongkud in one forest enclosure. At first they were curious about all of the tall trees around them. Tall trees! NOT a cage!! These 6 sub-adult sun bears are now spending a lot of their time exploring, roaming, digging, resting, climbing, and foraging for food in the forest enclosure. They interact with their new environment by using their strong keen senses to experience different smells and sounds in the forest. Today, a dream became reality, and now these 6 sub-adult sun bears are confidently roaming and exploring in the forest. Once the door was opened, all of them went out into the forest immediately. They are extremely adventurous and already attempting to climb trees and logs. The bears are happily enjoying living amongst the tropical rainforest, each in their own special way. Ah Bui, likes to dig in the soil and search for food while others prefer to use their sharp canines to rip open trees and find their favourite snack. They rummage through the forest smelling around decayed wood and dead logs in search of any interesting insects and invertebrates. When the bears are not spending their time resting or sunbathing on the forest canopy they are sharpening their tree climbing skills to help them catch termites and other forest invertebrates. They’ve also become good playmates and will play, chase, hang out, and climb trees together in the forest. It brings great satisfaction to see the 6 young sun bears freely roaming in the forest enclosure. They’ve all made such great progress, and are beginning to take on characteristics and natural behaviours of wild sun bears. Adapting to the forest is not easy, but once they begin to explore, things will get better. The sun bear is one of the most mysterious bears of the jungle, and plays such an important role in maintaining the ecosystem and equilibrium of the forest. Major threats to sun bear include habitat loss and poaching. Sun bears are classified as “vulnerable” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The Bornean Sun Bear Conservation Centre (BSBCC) aims to conserve sun bears through education, rehabilitation, and research with hopes to improve the welfare for captive orphan sun bears. Please help us spread the word!! Here are a couple of photos of Mary, Ah Bui, Koko and Debbie explore in the BSBCC forest enclosure.
Ah Bui (front) and Debbie (behind) was curious with the outside forest enclosure.
Fulung and Bongkud become the indicator for Mary, Ah Bui, Koko and Debbie out to forest.
Ah Bui has very easily adapted to her new environment. She seems a very happy bear who is enjoy her freedom in the forest enclosure.
Mary loves to spends her time playing with her playmates and also busy in searching for her favorite termites and other forest invertebrates.
Debbie has a very strong personality and is always aware and curious of her new surroundings.
Koko loves playing around in the forest enclosure. She climbs the tree with Fulung.
They are enjoy their freedom in the forest enclosure !!
Ah Bui and Fulung were play together.
They climb like a wild sun bear in forest enclosure
Sun bears have great sense of smell.They spend most of their time foraging for food.
The long sharp claws and canines of the sun bear are handy for tearing open trees bark where insect and bee nests can be found and slurped up using their special long tongue.
Debbie is curious and usually pause to investigate something unfamiliar things around her. Her head up so she can see and smell.
They spend much of the day sunbathing or resting on the forest floor or trees.
They are tree climbers and spend most of their time amongst the branches.
“When our officers went back to the place to ask about it the next morning, no one owned up to it,” he said.
Damai is a mere 10-minute drive from here. Ambu said those found guilty of rearing or possessing protected species such as the Borneon sun bear could face a mandatory jail term between one month and a year.
The presence of the 4kg cub was known when the dog belonging to the house owner Blue Lum, 38, kept barking on Thursday night. The cub is now at the Lok Kawi zoo. It will be sent to the Sepilok Borneon Sun Bear Conservation Centre.